Doctrine & Covenants/Church History
The Law of Tithing and the Law of the
The Lord has commanded us to pay tithing. He has promised great blessings
to those who obey this commandment.
The Lord has commanded us to fast and to pay generous fast offerings.
A study of this lesson will help us strengthen our desire to pay a full tithe
and live the law of the fast.
Scripture references for study:
Malachi 3:8–12 or
3 Nephi 24:8–12;
Matthew 6:16–18 or
3 Nephi 13:16–18
Note: Underlined scripture references have been hyperlinked
to the LDS Scriptures at LDS.org and will open in a new window.
Lesson 17 Handout (PDF)
The Law of Tithing
The Lord has commanded us to pay tithing.
Historical Background to
The revelation in Section 119 was given in 1838, this is a jump forward in time from the
early Ohio and Missouri periods we have discussed in previous lessons.
After the failure of the Kirtland Safety Society, many members became embittered
towards the Prophet. In early 1838 Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon
left for Far West, Missouri. The Kirtland era of the Church was closing
and the Saints were now gathering to northern Missouri.
On May 15, 1838, the Prophet in company with several of the brethren left
Far West to explore the area northward with the intention of
preparing boundaries for stakes of Zion.
During this trip they came to a place called Spring Hill which the Lord
revealed to the Prophet as Adam-ondi-Ahman, the place where Adam shall
come to visit his people in the latter days.
On June 16, 1838, back in Far West, steps were taken to organize a stake
in Daviess County to be known as the Adam-ondi-Ahman Stake.
July 8, 1838, the Prophet prayed to the Lord saying: "O Lord! Show unto
thy servant how much thou requirest of the properties of thy people for
a tithing." In answer to this prayer he received the revelation known as Section 119.
As discussed in Lesson
14, the law of consecration had been given to the Saints during
the early Kirtland period. Many Saints broke this law and brought upon their
heads, and the heads of their brethren and sisters, dire punishment and
persecution. This celestial law was withdrawn for a time, or until
the time of the redemption of Zion.
In November 1834, while Joseph and Oliver were suffering because they were
unable to meet their debts and obligations, prayed to the Lord and promised,
if the Lord will prosper us in our business and open the way before us
that we may obtain means to pay our debts . . . we will give a tenth to
be bestowed upon the poor of His Church, or as He shall command."
This was a personal commitment and obligation to the Lord and not binding
upon the Church.
In response to the Prophet's prayer, the Law of Tithing was revealed, a
commandment binding upon the whole Church.
- For additional information on the historical background of Section 119, see
Tithing of My People at LDS.org.
"Verily, thus saith the
Lord, I require all their surplus property to be put into the hands of
the bishop of my church in Zion, For the building of mine
house, and for the laying of the foundation of Zion and for the priesthood,
and for the debts of the Presidency of my Church. And this shall be the
beginning of the tithing of my people. And after that, those
who have thus been tithed shall pay one-tenth of all their interest annually;
and this shall be a standing law unto them forever, for my holy priesthood,
saith the Lord." (D&C 119:1-4)
According to President Joseph Fielding Smith, this revelation called for
the following (see Church History & Modern Revelation, 3:120):
All surplus property of the members to be placed in the hands of the
For the building of the Lord's house, and for laying the foundation of
Zion, and for the Priesthood, and the debts of the Presidency of the Church.
This was to be the beginning of tithing.
After this all members should pay one-tenth of their interest, annually.
This was to be a standing law unto them forever.
All who gather to the land of Zion were required to be tithed of their
surplus properties, and should observe the law, or they would be unworthy
to abide among the Saints.
If the people failed to observe this law, and thus sanctify the land
of Zion to the Lord, that his statutes and judgments may be kept, it would
not be a land of Zion unto them.
This example was to be followed by all the people in all the stakes of
The Law of Tithing is not new to this dispensation, but a restoration of
an ancient law.
On the same day that Section 119 was revealed, the Prophet also received
Section 120 which explains how the tithing is to be distributed: "Verily,
thus saith the Lord, the time is now come, that it shall be disposed of
by a council, composed of the First Presidency of my Church, and of the
bishop and his council, and by my high council; and by mine own voice unto
them, saith the Lord. Even so. Amen" (D&C 120:1).
In obedience to this commandment, many properties were soon tithed. The journal history makes the following entry for July 26, 1838: "The
First Presidency, High Council, and Bishop's court assembled at Far West
to dispose of the public properties of the Church in the hands of the Bishop,
many of the brethren having consecrated their surplus property according
to the revelations.
"It was agreed that the
First Presidency should keep all their properties that they could dispose
of to advantage, for their support, and the remainder be put into the hands
of the Bishop or Bishops, according to the commandments.
"Moved, seconded, and carried
unanimously" (HC, 3:47-48).
It seems that whenever such commandments are given, it takes time for the
membership to fully understand the will of the Lord. President Brigham
Young, during his administration, said that this principle was "not fully
understood or practiced." In 1855 he said: "I
found the people said they were willing to do about as they were counselled,
but upon asking them about their surplus property, most of the men who
owned land and cattle would say, 'I have got so many hundred acres of land,
and I have got so many boys, and I want each of them to have eighty acres,
therefore this is not surplus property.' Again, 'I have got so many
girls, and I do not believe I shall be able to give them more than forty
acres each.' 'Well, you have got two or three hundred acres left.' 'Yes, but I have a brother-in-law coming on, and he will depend on me for
a living; my wife's nephew is also coming on, he is poor, and I shall have
to furnish him a farm after he arrives here.' . . . .
"Some were disposed to
do right with their surplus property, and once in a while you would find
a man who had a cow which he considered surplus, but generally she was
of the class that would kick a person's hat off, or eyes out, or the wolves
had eaten off her teats. You would once in a while find a man who
had a horse that he considered surplus, but at the same time he had the
ringbone, was broken-winded, spavined in both legs, and had the pole evil
at one end of the neck and a fistula at the other, and both knees sprung."
In the Eleventh General Epistle to the Church dated April 10, 1854, the
Saints were instructed: "In union there
is strength; but how can a people become united while their interests are
diversified. How can they become united in spiritual matters, and see eye
to eye, which they can only partly understand, until they become united
in regard to temporal things, which they do comprehend?"
The Epistle went on to explain why the Law of Tithing
was given and to explain that "the Law of Tithing,
which required that all should in the first instance pay one tenth of their
entire property into the Church, and thereafter pay one tenth of all their
increase; which was for the poor, to promote the spread of the Gospel among
the nations of the earth, support the ministry, and building of Temples
unto the Most High." (Messages of the First Presidency, 2:139)
In the early days of the Church there were several different types of acceptable
tithing (see Studies in Scripture, 1:459-460 & Great Basin Kingdom,
Property tithing: This was a 10% assessment of all property at the
time an individual first began to pay tithing. After that, it was
an assessment of 10% on one's annual increase. The Church
no longer makes a one time property assessment at the time one begins paying
Labor tithing: One day in ten was donated to the Church for various
projects. After the Saints arrived in Utah, this was an important
means of building up the new civilization. Saints donated their time
in building the temple, churches, schools, and roads.
Produce and stock tithing: Farm goods were brought to the bishop's
Institutional tithing: 10% on profits from stores and factories.
Cash tithing: In the 19th Century, only a fraction of the Church's
income came from cash payments. Given the changing times and a dynamic
worldwide church, this is now the only way to pay tithing.
In the late 19th Century, the Church came into serious financial trouble due
to years of persecution by the federal government. In order
to meet financial obligations, during the administration of Lorenzo Snow,
$1,000,000 in bonds were issued by the Church. This was only a temporary
In the spring of 1899, President Snow and other church leaders began a
tour through the Utah settlements, beginning in St. George and working
their way north. The theme of their preaching was an emphasis on
the law of tithing.
On May 30, 1899, President Snow spoke to the officer's
meeting of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association. Officers
from almost every stake were present. President Snow delivered a
powerful discourse on the principle of tithing and the following resolution
was adopted by the conference: "Resolved:
That we accept the doctrine of tithing, as now presented by President Snow,
as the present word and will of the Lord unto us, and we do accept it with
all our hearts; we will ourselves observe it, and we will do all in our
power to get the Latter-day Saints to do likewise" (Comprehensive
History of the Church, 6:359).
After the adoption of the resolution, President
Snow arose and said: "Brethren, the God of our
fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob bless you. Every man who is here, who
has made this promise, will be saved in the celestial kingdom. God bless
you. Amen" (Ibid, p359).
On July 2, 1899, a solemn assembly of priesthood
was held in the Salt Lake temple. All General Authorities were
present, as well as stake leaders from all 40 stakes, and leaders from
hundreds of wards. The subject of tithing was presented and all those
present accepted a resolution on tithing as the word and will of the Lord,
through President Snow to the church.
B.H. Roberts: "President
Snow did not live long enough to see the full fruition of this movement
he inaugurated, but he did live long enough to see that the church was
on the way to its emancipation from the great amount of debt with which
it had become burdened during the previous administration, for the reasons
already given." (Ibid., p360)
See the story of President Snow's emphasis on tithing in the classic 1963 LDS
movie Windows of
Without question, obedience to the Law of Tithing as revealed in 1838,
and as given renewed emphasis by President Snow in 1899, has been a tremendous
blessing to the Church. U.S. News & World Report published a
cover story about the Church in November 2000. The author wrote:
church keeps a tight lid on its financial records, but bits and pieces
of information extracted over the years by journalists and former church
members offer a tantalizing glimpse into the depth and breadth of the Mormon
financial empire. In their 1999 Mormon America: The Power and the
Promise, journalists Richard N. Ostling and Joan K. Ostling estimate the
church's assets at $25 billion to $30 billion, and annual revenue approaching
$6 billion, at least $5.3 billion of which comes from member contributions
(officials say tithing–the giving of 10 percent of one's income–remains
the primary source of church revenues)" (Jeffery L. Sheler, U.S.
News & World Report, Nov 11, 2000). Though this data is dated, it
shows the power of tithing.
Though billions seems like a lot of money, it takes
that much to build and maintain thousands of church buildings. We
have witnessed great emphasis on temple building. This great activity would not
have been possible without money paid by faithful tithe payers. The
operation of seminaries, institutes, and other educational facilities requires
money. The extension of missionary work to the nations of the world
is a costly enterprise. How blessed we are to have this opportunity
to contribute to the latter-day building of the kingdom of God.
HOW MUCH IS A PROPER TITHING?
The First Presidency gave the following definition of tithing: "The
simplest statement we know of is the statement of the Lord himself, namely,
that the members of the Church should pay 'one-tenth of all their interest
annually,' which is understood to mean income. No one is justified
in making any other statement than this." (First Presidency letter to
stake presidents and bishops, 19 Mar 1970 - quoted in A Companion to Your Study
of the New Testament: The Four Gospels, p308)
President Joseph Fielding Smith: "It is
remarkable how many excuses can be made and interpretations given as to
what constitutes the tenth. … It is written, however, that as we measure
it shall be measured to us again. If we are stingy with the Lord,
he may be stingy with us, or in other words, withhold his blessings."
(Church History and Modern Revelation, 2:92)
The Lord has promised great blessings to those who obey this commandment.
"Will a man rob God? Yet
ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and
offerings. Ye are cursed with a curse: for ye have robbed me, even
this whole nation. Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that
there may be meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, saith the LORD
of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out
a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it."
I think anyone that has been taught this great principle knows the blessings
that come from living this great commandment. Those that have been
less than obedient often feel the withholding of blessings. Personally,
I find this one of the easier commandments to obey. To pay 10% is
straight forward, almost black and white. And the resulting blessings
are almost as straight forward. In over four decades of marriage,
we have always had the material necessities, while we have watched many
of our contemporaries go through economic chaos. In addition, I believe
we have been blessed with uncounted spiritual blessings.
Elder Dallin H. Oaks: "During World War
II, my widowed mother supported her three young children on a schoolteacher's
salary that was meager. When I became conscious that we went without
some desirable things because we didn't have enough money, I asked my mother
why she paid so much of her salary as tithing. I have never forgotten her
explanation: 'Dallin, there might be some people who can get along without
paying tithing, but we can't. The Lord has chosen to take your father
and leave me to raise you children. I cannot do that without the
blessings of the Lord, and I obtain those blessings by paying an honest
tithing. When I pay my tithing, I have the Lord's promise that he
will bless us, and we must have those blessings if we are to get along'."
(Ensign, May 1994, p33)
President Heber J. Grant: "The law of financial
prosperity to the Latter-day Saints, under covenant with God, is to be
an honest tithe payer, and not to rob the Lord in tithes and offerings. Prosperity comes to those who observe the law of tithing. When I
say prosperity I am not thinking of it in terms of dollars and cents alone,
although as a rule the Latter-day Saints who are the best tithe payers
are the most prosperous men, financially. But what I count as real
prosperity, as the one thing of all others that is of great value to every
man and woman living, is the growth in a knowledge of God, and in a testimony,
and in the power to live the gospel and to inspire our families to do the
same. That is prosperity of the truest kind." (Conference Report,
President Grant discussed his own experience at paying tithing: "I
have never made a dollar on which I did not pay tithing. A president
of the stake begged and pleaded with me to quit paying tithing. He
said I did not owe any tithing until I got out of debt. Would not
that have been a fine record for a man who now stands as president of the
Church, not to have paid tithing for thirty-two years? I have had
friends beg and plead with me to take bankruptcy, saying that I would never
live long enough to pay my debts.
"If there is any man living
who is entitled to say, 'Keep out of debt,' his name is Heber J. Grant. Thank the Lord that I was able to pay it all, and pay it all without asking
a dollar discount from anyone.
"I do not believe I ever
would have paid it if I had not been absolutely honest with the Lord. When
I made any money, the first debt I paid was to the Lord." (Gospel
Reasons for paying tithing.
WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF PAYING A FULL TITHE?
As noted above, it requires a significant amount of money to maintain the
day to day operations of the Church and to meet the demands of rapid growth.
We should pay tithing because we love the Lord and have faith in Him, not
just because we need blessings.
President Joseph F. Smith: "By this principle
(tithing) the loyalty of the people of this Church shall be put to the
test. By this principle it shall be known who is for the kingdom
of God and who is against it. By this principle it shall be seen
whose hearts are set on doing the will of God and keeping his commandments,
thereby sanctifying the land of Zion unto God, and who are opposed to this
principle and have cut themselves off from the blessings of Zion. There is a great deal of importance connected with this principle, for
by it shall be known whether we are faithful or unfaithful. In this
respect it is as essential as faith in God, as repentance of sin, as baptism
for the remission of sin, or as the laying on of hands for the gift of
the Holy Ghost. For if a man keep all the laws save in one point,
and he offend in that, he is a transgressor of the law, and he is not entitled
to the fulness of the blessings of the Gospel of Jesus Christ (James 2:10.) But when a man keeps all the laws that are revealed, according to his strength,
his substance, and his ability, though what he does may be little, it is
just as acceptable in the sight of God as if he were able to do a thousand
times more." (Gospel Doctrine, pp 282-283)
WHY IS IT SOMETIMES A CHALLENGE TO PAY TITHING? WHAT CAN WE DO TO
OVERCOME THAT CHALLENGE?
The use of tithing funds.
WHO DETERMINES HOW TITHING FUNDS ARE USED?
As noted above, Section 120 was revealed to designate those involved in
the budgeting and expenditure of tithing funds.
The First Presidency, Quorum of the Twelve, and Presiding Bishopric constitute
the Council on the Disposition of the Tithes.
President Gordon B. Hinckley: "I keep on
the credenza behind my desk a widow’s mite that was given me in Jerusalem
many years ago as a reminder, a constant reminder, of the sanctity of the
funds with which we have to deal. They come from the widow; they
are her offering as well as the tithe of the rich man, and they are to
be used with care and discretion for the purposes of the Lord. We
treat them carefully and safeguard them and try in every way that we can
to see that they are used as we feel the Lord would have them used for
the upbuilding of His work and the betterment of people." (Ensign,
Nov 1996, p50)
WHAT ARE TITHING FUNDS USED FOR?
Elder Dallin H. Oaks explained: "[Tithing] funds are spent to build and
maintain temples and houses of worship, to conduct our worldwide missionary
work, to translate and publish scriptures, to provide resources to redeem
the dead, to fund religious education, and to support other Church purposes
selected by the designated servants of the Lord." (Ensign, May 1994, P35)
HOW HAVE YOU BEEN BLESSED BY THE USE OF TITHING FUNDS?
Additional resources on this principle can be found at
Tithing at LDS.org.
The Law of the Fast
The Lord has commanded us to fast.
"And on this day thou
shalt do none other thing, only let thy food be prepared with singleness
of heart that thy fasting may be perfect, or, in other words, that thy
joy may be full. Verily, this is fasting and prayer, or in other
words, rejoicing and prayer." (D&C 59:13-14)
Again, as part of the restoration of all things, the Lord has restored
the principle of fasting.
WHAT ARE SOME PURPOSES FOR FASTING?
To draw nearer to the Lord.
Increase our spiritual strength.
Subject our bodily appetites to our spirits.
Overcome temptation or weakness.
Strengthen our testimonies.
Ask the Lord to bless others.
President Heber J. Grant: "Every living
soul among the Latter-day Saints that fasts two meals once a month will
be benefited spiritually and be built up in the faith of the gospel of
the Lord Jesus Christ—benefited spiritually in a wonderful way—and sufficient
means will be in the hands of the bishops to take care of all the poor."
(Gospel Standards, p123)
IN WHAT WAYS HAS FASTING WITH A PURPOSE ADDED MEANING TO YOUR FASTS?
Fasting with a purpose adds meaning to a fast and aids one in drawing
closer to the Lord. A few months into my mission, my companion and
I decided to fast on a weekly basis to aid us in being more effective missionaries
and in finding those who were seeking the truth. To be honest, it
was difficult to fast every week, but the blessings were enormous. It was during that period that my testimony was significantly strengthened. We were successful in finding investigators and bringing them to the waters
of baptism. It was a remarkable period of time and I attribute it
to the power of fasting coupled with prayer, scripture study, and a greater
desire to serve the Lord.
HOW SHOULD WE FAST?
President Ezra Taft Benson: "Periodic fasting
can help clear up the mind and strengthen the body and the spirit. The usual fast, the one we are asked to participate in for fast Sunday,
is for twenty-four hours without food or drink. Some people, feeling
the need, have gone on longer fasts of abstaining from food but have taken
the needed liquids. Wisdom should be used, and the fast should be
broken with light eating. To make a fast most fruitful, it should
be coupled with prayer and meditation; physical work should be held to
a minimum, and it is a blessing if one can ponder on the scriptures and
the reason for the fast." (Ensign, Nov 1974, pp66-67)
Joseph F. Smith: "Now, while the law requires
the Saints in all the world to fast from 'even to even' and to abstain
both from food and drink, it can easily be seen from the scriptures and
especially from the words of Jesus, that it is more important to obtain
the true spirit of love for God and man, 'purity of heart and simplicity
of intention,' than it is to carry out the cold letter of the law. The Lord has instituted the fast on a reasonable and intelligent basis,
and none of his works are vain or unwise. His law is perfect in this
as in other things. Hence, those who can are required to comply thereto;
it is a duty from which they cannot escape; but let it be remembered that
the observance of the fast day by abstaining twenty-four hours from food
and drink is not an absolute rule, it is no iron-clad law to us, but it
is left with the people as a matter of conscience, to exercise wisdom and
discretion. Many are subject to weakness, others are delicate in
health, and others have nursing babies; of such it should not be required
to fast. Neither should parents compel their little children to fast. I have known children to cry for something to eat on fast day. In
such cases, going without food will do them no good. Instead, they
dread the day to come, and in place of hailing it, dislike it, while the
compulsion engenders a spirit of rebellion in them, rather than a love
for the Lord and their fellows. Better teach them principle, and
let them observe it when they are old enough to choose intelligently, than
to so compel them.
"But those should fast
who can, and all classes among us should be taught to save the meals which
they would eat, or their equivalent, for the poor. None are exempt
from this; it is required of the Saints, old and young, in every part of
the Church." (Gospel Doctrine, pp243-44)
The Lord has command us to pay a generous fast offering.
Brigham Young said this about the beginnings of the common fast day and
donations for the benefit of the needy: "You know that the first Thursday in each month we hold as a fast day. How many here know the origin of this day? Before tithing was paid,
the poor were supported by donations. They came to Joseph [Smith
the Prophet] and wanted help, in Kirtland, and he said there should be
a fast day, which was decided upon. It was to be held once a month,
as it is now, and all that would have been eaten that day, of flour, or
meat, or butter, or fruit, or anything else, was to be carried to the fast
meeting and put in the hands of a person selected for the purpose of taking
care of the poor." (JD, 12:115)
The practice of holding fast and testimony meetings was also begun during
the Kirtland period.
"During the exodus from Nauvoo the pioneers seldom
observed a common fast day but often were asked to give to the poor. It appears that the giving of regular fast day donations was reinstituted
in the Salt Lake Valley during the drought of 1855-1856." (Comprehensive
History of the Church, 4:109)
Brigham Young counseled the Saints in 1867: "Let
it be sent forth to the people, that on the first Thursday of each month,
the fast day, all that would be eaten by husbands and wives and children
and servants should be put in the hands of the bishop for the sustenance
of the poor. I am willing to do my share as well as the rest, and
if there are no poor in my ward, I am willing to divide with those wards
where there are poor. If the sisters will look out for rooms for those
sisters who need to be taken care of, and see them provided for, you will
find that we will possess more comfort and more peace in our hearts and
our spirits will be buoyant and light, full of joy and peace. The
bishops should, through their teachers, see that every family in their
wards, who is able, should donate what they would naturally consume on
the fast day to the poor." (JD, 12:115)
On these Fast Thursdays, the Saints would leave their regular occupation
and attend Fast and Testimony meeting. President Joseph Fielding
Smith recalls seeing businesses with signs hung on their doors that read,
"Closed for fast meeting" (Answers to Gospel Questions, 1:92). The
members brought with them the equivalent of several meals in foodstuffs. After one meeting in 1856, the Salt Lake Eighteenth Ward recorded receipt
of the following from different individuals: 12 eggs, 8 lbs meal,
1/2 lb coffee, 1 lb pork, 4 lbs flour, 5 lbs flour, 1 1/2 lbs pork, 1/4
lb butter, 12 lbs flour, 5 1/2 lbs meal, 13 lbs flour, 6 lbs beef, and
2 lbs pork (The Mormon Experience, p210).
In 1896, the common fast day was changed from the first Thursday of the
month to the first Sunday of the month. Over time, the fast offering
has evolved to being primarily a cash offering rather than the donation
"On fast Sunday, a proper fast includes giving
a generous fast offering to help care for those in need. Fast offerings
are first used to help those in the ward and stake where the members reside.
Bishops may use these funds to provide food, shelter, clothing, and other
life-sustaining aid to those in need." (Lesson Manual)
HOW MUCH SHOULD WE DONATE?
President Ezra Taft Benson: "A word about
fast offerings. There are inquiries from time to time regarding the
amount of the fast offering contribution. The Brethren have counseled
that the fast offering should be a generous contribution, and as a minimum
should be the 'equivalent of the value of two meals'." (Teachings
of Ezra Taft Benson, p473)
President Spencer W. Kimball: "Sometimes
we have been a bit penurious and figured that we had for breakfast one
egg and that cost so many cents and then we give that to the Lord. I think that when we are affluent, as many of us are, that we ought to
be very, very generous … and give, instead of the amount we saved by our
two meals of fasting, perhaps much, much more—ten times more where we are
in a position to do it." (Conference Report, Apr 1974, p184)
- President Gordon B. Hinckley: "Think … of
what would happen if the principles of fast day and the fast offering were
observed throughout the world. The hungry would be fed, the naked
clothed, the homeless sheltered. Our burden of taxes would be lightened. The giver would not suffer but would be blessed by his small abstinence.
A new measure of concern and unselfishness would grow in the hearts of
people everywhere." (Ensign, May 1991, pp52-53)
Additional resources on this principle can be found at
Fasting and Fast Offerings at LDS.org.
Gospel Doctrine Notebook
Record your thoughts on the principles of tithing and the law
of the fast. How have you been strengthened and blessed by living these laws?
Resources Used In This Lesson
A Companion to Your Study of the New Testament: The Four Gospels by Daniel H.
A Comprehensive History of the Church by B.H. Roberts (CHC).
Answers To Gospel Questions, Volume 1, by Joseph Fielding Smith.
Church History & Modern Revelation by Joseph Fielding Smith.
Conference Reports (CR).
Gospel Doctrine by Joseph F. Smith.
Gospel Standards by Heber J. Grant.
Great Basin Kingdom by Leonard J. Arrington.
History of the Church (HC).
Journal of Discourses (JD).
Messages of the First Presidency compiled by James R. Clark.
Studies In Scripture, Volume 1, edited by Robert L. Millet
and Kent P. Jackson.
The Mormon Experience by Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton.
Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson.
U.S. News & World Report.
Gospel Doctrine Class
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