New Testament - Lesson 1
Resource Notes

Note 1 - The Eternal Ministry of Christ

The Eternal Ministry Of Christ




Note 2 - Historical Link From The Old Testament To The New Testament

The following historical information helps us link the end of the prophetic Old Testament era with the New Testament period. It should assist in painting a picture of the world in which our Lord and Master entered into at the meridian of time. We can more fully understand the world that he was part of by seeing how it evolved.

Elder James E. Talmage: "The long history of the Israelitish nation had unfolded a succession of events that found a relative culmination in the earthly mission of the Messiah. That we may the better comprehend the true significance of the Lord's life and ministry while in the flesh, some consideration should be given to the political, social, and religious condition of the people amongst whom He appeared and with whom He lived and died. Such consideration involves at least a brief review of the antecedent history of the Hebrew nation." (Jesus the Christ, p55)

The End Of The Old Testament Period

Daniel and the Jewish captivity in Babylon.

During this same period of time Lao-Tzu develops the Tao Te Ching, outlining the philosophy of Taoism.

537 B.C. - King Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and established the Persian Empire. Shortly thereafter, Cyrus freed the captive Jews to return to Jerusalem, allowing them to take back the vessels of the temple seized by Nebuchadnezzar. Only a few returned at this time.

509 B.C. - Rome becomes a republic.

490 B.C. - The Greeks defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.

480 B.C. - Siddhartha Gautam, the Buddha, dies about this time in India.

458 B.C. - Ezra commissioned to lead a group of Jews back to Jerusalem.

444 B.C. - The prophet Nehemiah gained favor of the Persian king as his cupbearer and led a group of Jews back to Jerusalem. He was appointed governor of Judaea.

450-432 B.C. - Malachi prophesies. Last of the prophets. The Jews still consider him the last of the prophets. He was the last prophet of the dispensation of Moses.

Through this period Judah continued to live under Persian rule. Judah remained under Persian rule for two centuries. But this may have been a blessing since the nation was not strong enough to survive the surrounding nomads, who may have pushed Judah into the sea.

The Rise Of The Scribes

The scribes were originally educated men who made their livelihood keeping the records of the empire or as copyists of the scriptures.

Through this period the common language of the people shifted from Hebrew to Aramaic.

The Greek Conquest Of Palestine

399 B.C. - Socrates is executed for impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens.

334 B.C. - Alexander the Great attacked the Persian Empire and defeated it.

After the death of Alexander two rival generals fought to gain control of the empire.

The Hasmoneans And The Maccabean Revolt

167 B.C. - Incident in the little village of Modin.

Mattathias died soon after the revolt began and his son Judah took over leadership of the revolt.

Hasmonean rule.

Judea Under The Romans

Pompey appointed one of the Hasmoneans to be king, though he had little power. Herod: Under Rome the Jews were given a certain amount of religious liberty, but could not impose death penalties as Moses had once done.

It was into this world that our Savior Jesus Christ was born.

Note: The Old Testament Student Manual (1 Kings to Malachi) contains a more detailed review of this historical information (see pages 359-365)

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Changes last made on:  05 December 2014