End Was I Born
Jesus is betrayed, arrested, and accused of blasphemy; Peter denies Jesus
Jesus is sentenced to be crucified.
Jesus is scourged and crucified.
A study of this lesson will help us feel the Saviors love and increase our
love for him and our gratitude for his atoning sacrifice.
Scripture references for study:
Note: Underlined scripture references have been hyperlinked
to the LDS Scriptures at LDS.org and will open in a new window.
Lesson 26 Handout (PDF
Betrayal & Arrest
In concluding his narration of the events in Gethsemane, Elder James E. Talmage
says: "The further tragedy of the night, and the cruel inflictions that
awaited Him on the morrow, to culminate in the frightful tortures of the
cross, could not exceed the bitter anguish through which He had successfully
passed." (Jesus The Christ, p614)
Talmage gives a description of the approaching arrest party:
the period of the Lord's last and most loving communion with the Eleven,
Judas had been busy in his treacherous conspiracy with the priestly authorities.
It is probable that the determination to make the arrest that night was
reached when Judas reported that Jesus was within the city walls and might
easily be apprehended. The Jewish rulers assembled a body of temple guardsmen
or police, and obtained a band of Roman soldiers under command of a tribune;
this band or cohort was probably a detachment from the garrison of Antonia
commissioned for the work of the night on requisition of the chief priests.
This company of men and officers representing a combination of ecclesiastical
and military authority, set forth in the night with Judas at their head,
intent on the arrest of Jesus. They were equipped with lanterns, torches,
and weapons. It is probable that they were first conducted to the house
in which Judas had left his fellow apostles and the Lord, when the traitor
had been dismissed; and that finding the little company had gone out, Judas
led the multitude to Gethsemane, for he knew the place, and knew also that
'Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples'." (Jesus The Christ,
MATTHEW 26:46-50. Jesus betrayed.
"Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them,
Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the
Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners."
LUKE 22:50-51. The ear of a servant cut off and
John records: "Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said,
Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore
ye seek me, let these go their way." (John 18:7-8)
Elder Talmage: "It is possible that had any of the Eleven been apprehended
with Jesus and made to share the cruel abuse and torturing humiliation
of the next few hours, their faith might have failed them, relatively immature
and untried as it then was; even as in succeeding years many who took upon
themselves the name of Christ yielded to persecution and went into apostasy."
(Jesus The Christ, p616)
LUKE 22:52-53. Jesus identifies his illegal arrest.
Only Luke reports the healing of the ear.
Only John reports that it was Peter who smote off the ear.
What a remarkable demonstration revealing the character of Jesus. He had just
passed through the supreme agony of all time and yet his sensitivity for
others was still present, both in his healing of the servant and in his
concern for his Apostles.
Matthew records that before Jesus was led off to trial, "all the disciples
forsook him, and fled." (Matthew 26:56)
The Trial and Condemnation
JOHN 18:12-13. Jesus led to Annas.
MATTHEW 26:57. Jesus led to the home of Caiaphas.
John was the only one to record the this fact. There is no record of what
transpired with Annas.
MATTHEW 26:59-68. Jesus questioned by the Sanhedrin
at the home of Caiaphas.
WHO WERE ANNAS AND CAIAPHAS?
Annas was appointed high priest in 7 AD and deposed in 15 AD.
Joseph Caiaphas, Annas son-in-law, was high priest from 18-36 AD.
Annas had immense wealth and during this time continued to exercise a great
deal of religious and political control over the Jews. Annas gained much
of his wealth from the sale of materials used in temple sacrifices.
WHY DO YOU SUPPOSE THESE MEN FELT THREATENED BY JESUS?
If the people began to believe and follow Jesus, these men would lose their
power and influence.
"At the palace of Caiaphas, the chief priests, scribes, and elders of
the people were assembled, in a meeting of the Sanhedrin, informal or otherwise,
all eagerly awaiting the result of the expedition led by Judas." (Jesus
The Christ, p621)
LUKE 22:54-62. Peter's denial of Christ.
In Jesus the Christ, Elder Talmage points out many illegalities involved
in Jesus' trial according to Jewish law (see Jesus The Christ, p621-629).
"And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a
consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound
Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate." (Mark
WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ABOUT PETER AS YOU READ THIS ACCOUNT?
Spencer W. Kimball: "Today I wish to talk about my brother, my colleague,
my fellow apostle--Simon Barjona or Cephas or Peter the Rock.
"Some time ago a newspaper in a distant
town carried an Easter sunday religious editorial by a minister who stated
that the presiding authority of the early-day church fell because of self-confidence,
indecision, evil companions, failure to pray, lack of humility, and fear
of man. He then concluded: 'Let us as people, especially those who are
Christians and claim to abide by the Word of God, not make make the same
mistakes and fall as Peter fell.'
"As I read this, I had some strange emotions.
I was shocked, then I was chilled, then my blood changed its temperature
and began to boil. I felt I was attacked viciously, for Peter was my brother,
my colleague, my example, my prophet, and God's anointed. I whispered to
myself, "This is not true. He is maligning my brother.
"Then I opened my New Testament. I could
find no such character as this modern minister described. Instead, I found
a man who had grown perfect through his experiences and sufferings--a man
with vision, a man of revelations, a man fully trusted by his Lord Jesus
"I do not pretend to know what Peter's
mental reactions were nor what compelled him to say what he did that terrible
night. But in light of his proven bravery, courage, great devotion, and
limitless love for the Master, could we not give him the benefit of the
doubt and at least forgive him as his Savior seems to have done so fully.
Almost immediately Christ elevated him to the highest position in his
church and endowed him with the complete keys of that kingdom.
"Simon Barjona did not have long to consider
the matter or change his decisions, for he now heard the cock crow twice
and was reminded of Christ's prediction. He was humbled to the dust. Hearing
the bird's announcement of the dawn reminded him not only that he had denied
the Lord but also that all the Lord had said would be fulfilled, even to
the crucifixion. He went out and wept bitterly. Were his tears for personal
repentance only, or were they mingled with sorrowful tears in realization
of the fate of his Lord and Master and his own great loss?" (Speeches
of the Year, BYU Press, 1971)
HOW DO SOME OF US, LIKE PETER, SOMETIMES DENY OUR FAITH? WHAT CAN WE LEARN
FROM PETER'S LIFE AFTER HE DENIED THE FAITH?
President Gordon B. Hinckley: "My heart goes out to Peter. So many of
us are so much like him. We pledge our loyalty; we affirm our determination
to be of good courage; we declare, sometimes even publicly, that come what
may we will do the right thing, that we will stand for the right cause,
that we will be true to ourselves and to others.
"Then the pressures begin to build. Sometimes
these are social pressures. Sometimes they are personal appetites. Sometimes
they are false ambitions. There is a weakening of the will. There is a
softening of discipline. There is capitulation. And then there is remorse,
followed by self-accusation and bitter tears of regret...
"If there be those throughout the Church
who by word or act have denied the faith, I pray that you may draw comfort
and resolution from the example of Peter, who, though he had walked daily
with Jesus, in an hour of extremity momentarily denied the Lord and also
the testimony which he carried in his own heart. But he rose above this
and became a mighty defender and a powerful advocate. So, too, there is
a way for any person to turn about and add his or her strength and faith
to the strength and faith of others in building the kingdom of God."
(Ensign, Mar 1995, pp2-4, 6)
LUKE 23:8-11. Jesus before Herod.
WHO WAS PILATE?
He was the Roman governor or procurator for Judea, Idumea, and Samaria.
He was the highest Roman official for this area. He maintained his residence
in Caesarea, on the Mediterranean coast, but was usually in Jerusalem during
the Jewish feast, possibly to help quell any disturbance.
WHY WAS CHRIST DELIVERED UP TO PILATE?
Only Rome held the power of the death penalty.
LUKE 23:2-7. Jesus' first hearing before Pilate.
LUKE 23:13-23. Jesus before Pilate a second time.
The Sanhedrin, Pilate, and Herod were all attempting to avoid ultimate
responsibility in this matter.
MATTHEW 27:24-26. Pilate washes his hands of
James E. Talmage: "...finding that he could not prevail, and foreseeing
a tumult among the people if he persisted in the defense of Christ, he
called for water and washed his hands before the multitude--a symbolic
act of disclaiming responsibility, which they all understood--proclaiming
the while: 'I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it.'
Then rose that awful self-condemnatory cry of the covenant people: 'His
blood be on us and on our children.' History bears an appalling testimony
to the literal fulfilment of that dread invocation." (Jesus The Christ,
Elder Talmage: "Scourging was a frightful preliminary to death on
the cross. The instrument of punishment was a whip of many thongs, loaded
with metal and edged with jagged pieces of bone. Instances are of record
in which the condemned died under the lash and so escaped the horrors of
living crucifixion." (Jesus The Christ, p638)
MATTHEW 27:27-31. Soldiers mock Jesus.
"And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon
by name: him they compelled to bear his cross." (Matthew 27:32)
Seven statements made by Christ from the Cross.
James E. Talmage: "The sentence of death by crucifixion required that
the Condemned person carry the cross upon which he was to suffer. Jesus
started on the way bearing His cross. The terrible strain of the preceding
hours, the agony in Gethsemane, the barbarous treatment He had suffered
in the palace of the high priest, the humiliation and cruel usage to which
He had been subjected before Herod, the frightful scourging under Pilate's
order, the brutal treatment by the inhuman soldiery, together with the
extreme humiliation and the mental agony of it all, had so weakened His
physical organism that He moved but slowly under the burden of the cross.
The soldiers, impatient at the delay, peremptorily impressed into service
a man whom they met coming into Jerusalem from the country, and him they
compelled to carry the cross of Jesus. No Roman or Jew would have voluntarily
incurred the ignominy of bearing such a gruesome burden; for every detail
connected with the carrying out of a sentence of crucifixion was regarded
as degrading. The man so forced to walk in the footsteps of Jesus, bearing
the cross upon which the Savior of the world was to consummate His glorious
mission, was Simon, a native of Cyrene. From Mark's statement that Simon
was the father of Alexander and Rufus we infer that the two sons were known
to the evangelist's readers as members of the early Church, and there is
some indication that the household of Simon the Cyrenian came to be numbered
with the believers." (Jesus The Christ, pp652-653)
Consider the contrast between two men who got caught in the events of the
Pontius Pilate: A man who wanted nothing to do with this event and did
not have the courage to stand up for that which is right. He is remembered
in history as a coward.
Simon of Cyrene: We know little of him, but he carried more of the Lord's
burden in those hours of agony than any other man. He is remembered for
this special service he performed on that day. It appears he was touched by
events and became a follower.
Elder Talmage: "The death of Christ was accompanied by terrifying
phenomena. There was a violent earthquake; the rocks of the mighty hills
were disrupted, and many graves were torn open. But, most portentous of
all in Judaistic minds, the veil of the temple which hung between the Holy
Place and the Holy of Holies was rent from top to bottom, and the interior,
which none but the high priest had been permitted to see, was thrown open
to common gaze. It was the rending of Judaism, the consummation of the
Mosaic dispensation, and the inauguration of Christianity under apostolic
administration." (Jesus The Christ, p662)
LUKE 23:47-56. Jesus buried.
These statements made by the Lord from the cross exhibit three great aspects
of the Lord's character and divinity. Consider these as we read the last
mortal words of the Master:
His forgiving nature.
His concern for others.
His resignation by His own will to die a physical death.
"Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not
what they do." (Luke 23:34)
IS NOT THIS THE ULTIMATE EXAMPLE OF FORGIVENESS?
Joseph Smith Translation: "Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for
they know not what they do. (Meaning the soldiers who crucified him,) and
they parted his raiment and cast lots."
Elder McConkie says that the Lord is asking for forgiveness for the soldiers
who are carrying out their orders. He is not forgiving the Jewish conspirators,
Judas, Pilate, or Herod. "Here on the cross Jesus is simply complying
with his own command to forgive your enemies and to bless those who curse
you." (DNTC, 1:818-19)
"And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed
on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying,
Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the
due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember
me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say
unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise." (Luke 23:39-43)
The Prophet Joseph Smith said that Jesus told the thief, "This day thou
shalt be with me in the world of spirits." (TPJS, p309)
WHAT QUALITY IS THE LORD SHOWING IN THIS INSTANCE?
His concern for others. He has comforted the dying thief and given him
hope. In the spirit world he will be taught and be given an opportunity to
repent and accept the gospel.
"Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and
his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and
the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman,
behold thy son! Then saith he to the disciple, Behold
thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home."
After all that the Master had been through and the physical agony which
he was suffering, he reveals his compassionate character when he said to John, "Behold
"Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all
the land unto the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with
a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God,
my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" (Matthew 27:45-46)
James E. Talmage: "What mind of man can fathom the significance of that
awful cry? It seems, that in addition to the fearful suffering incident
to crucifixion, the agony of Gethsemane had recurred, intensified beyond
human power to endure. In that bitterest hour the dying Christ was alone,
alone in most terrible reality. That the supreme sacrifice of the Son might
be consummated in all its fulness, the Father seems to have withdrawn the
support of His immediate Presence, leaving to the Savior of men the glory
of complete victory over the forces of sin and death." (Jesus The Christ,
Jeffrey R. Holland: "Because he must ultimately tread this winepress
of redemption unaided, can he endure the darkest moment of them all, the
shock of the greatest pain? This comes not with thorns and with nails,
but with the terror of feeling utterly alone:...'My God, my God, why hast
thou forsaken me?' (Mark 15:34). Can he bear all of our sins and our fear
and loneliness too? He did and he does and he will." (Ensign, Nov.
"After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished,
that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst." (John
This was the only recorded utterance expressing physical suffering, an
indication that the sacrifice was almost complete.
"Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they
filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his
mouth. When Jesus therefore had received the
vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the
ghost." (John 19:29-30)
"And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said,
Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave
up the ghost." (Luke 23:45-46)
James E. Talmage: "Fully realizing that He was no longer forsaken, but
that His atoning sacrifice had been accepted by the Father, and that His
mission in the flesh had been carried to glorious consummation, He exclaimed
in a loud voice of holy triumph: 'It is finished.' In reverence, resignation,
and relief, He addressed the Father saying: 'Father, into thy hands I commend
my spirit.' He bowed His head, and voluntarily gave up His life.
"Jesus the Christ was dead. His life had
not been taken from Him except as He had willed to permit. Sweet and welcome
as would have been the relief of death in any of the earlier stages of
His suffering from Gethsemane to the cross, He lived until all things were
accomplished as had been appointed. In the latter days the voice of the
Lord Jesus has been heard affirming the actuality of His suffering and
death, and the eternal purpose thereby accomplished. Hear and heed His
words: 'For, behold, the Lord your Redeemer suffered death in the flesh;
wherefore he suffered the pain of all men, that all men might repent and
come unto him'." (Jesus The Christ, pp661-662)
Gospel Doctrine Notebook
Human language is insufficient to describe the magnitude and significance of what
happened in these last hours of Jesus life. The plans of eternity were
set in force by this ultimate sacrifice. Countless souls from this earth, as
well as worlds without number, may now be freed from the bonds eternity. How
can we invoke the blessings of the atonement in our lives? How will we
show our gratitude to the Savior for this great sacrifice?
Record your thoughts on the final events of the Savior's life. In what
ways can you better honor that sacrifice?
Resources Used In This Lesson
Doctrinal New Testament Commentary by Bruce R. McConkie (DNTC).
Jesus the Christ by James E. Talmage.
Speeches of the Year, BYU Press.
Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding
Gospel Doctrine Class
Page created by: email@example.com.
Please E-Mail comments.
Changes last made on:
17 June 2015