“Thou Wast Chosen Before Thou Wast Born”
Abraham learns that in the premortal life many spirits were foreordained
to their mortal missions.
Jesus Christ was chosen in the Council in Heaven to be our Savior; we chose
to follow him.
Lucifer (Satan) and the spirits who followed him were cast out of heaven.
A study of this lesson will help us understand the doctrine of foreordination
and our responsibility to help build up the kingdom of God and bring souls
Scripture references for study:
Note: Underlined scripture references have been hyperlinked
to the LDS Scriptures at LDS.org and will open in a new window.
Lesson 2 Handout (PDF)
WHERE DID WE GET THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM?
Between 1817 and 1821, Antonio Lebolo was doing excavation work in
Upper Egypt on the west bank of the Nile River. While digging, he
discovered eleven well-preserved mummies in a large tomb. (Encyclopedia of
Lebolo had these mummies shipped to Trieste, Italy. He authorized Albano Oblasser, a shipping magnate in Italy, to sell them on his behalf.
Lebolo died in 1830. The mummies were sent to two shipping companies
in New York City. They were to sell the mummies to anyone who would
pay the appropriate sum and the proceeds would be sent to Lebolo's heirs.
Early in 1833 the mummies were acquired by Michael Chandler, who claimed
to be Lebolo's nephew. Over the next two years Chandler exhibited
these mummies in places such as Philadelphia, Baltimore, Harrisburg, and Cleveland
(not far from Kirtland). (Studies In Scripture, 2:161-162)
In July 1835, Chandler visited Kirtland. He had heard of Joseph Smith
and his claim of translating ancient Egyptian. Eventually, the Church
purchased four mummies and at least two rolls of papyrus for $2,400.
(Encyclopedia of Mormonism, p1059)
Said the Prophet, "I commenced the translation
of some of the characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that
one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings
of Joseph of Egypt" (HC, 2:236). The Prophet translated
the Book of Abraham from these rolls.
After the Prophet's death, the artifacts were kept by his mother, Lucy. Emma took possession after Mother Smith's death in 1856. Shortly
thereafter, they were sold to Mr. Abel Combs, who then sold two mummies
with some papyri, which were sent to the St. Louis Museum. They eventually
ended up in the Chicago Museum where it appears they burned in 1871. (BYU
What happened to the other two mummies and remaining papyri is unclear. In 1918, the daughter of Abel Comb's housekeeper approached the New York
Metropolitan Museum with papyri she said were once owned by Joseph Smith. In 1947, the museum finally acquired the papyri from her widower. In 1966, Aziz S. Atiya, of the University of Utah saw eleven of these fragments
at the museum. He informed Church leaders and in 1967 the Church
acquired the fragments from the museum. One of these fragments is
Facsimile No. 1. It appears that, except for the fragment containing
Facsimile No. 1, these remaining fragments come from later religious texts.
(Encyclopedia of Mormonism, p1060)
Resource Note 1.
For additional information see
Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham at LDS.org.
Thou Wast Chosen Before Thou Wast Born - Abraham 3
Abraham learns that in the pre-mortal life many spirits were foreordained.
Like Moses, Abraham was also given a vision of the Lord's creations. This vision was given after Abraham left Ur of the Chaldees and prior to
his arrival in Egypt.
"Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to
face, as one man talketh with another; and he told me of the works which
his hands had made; And he said unto me: My son, my son (and his hand
was stretched out), behold I will show you all these. And he put his hand
upon mine eyes, and I saw those things which his hands had made, which
were many; and they multiplied before mine eyes, and I could not see the
end thereof" (v11-12).
Abraham saw in vision the governing stars and learned that the great one is Kolob. This star is near the Lord and has been
set by the Lord to govern the order of planets like unto this earth (v2-3).
Abraham is told of degrees of intelligence among spirits and that these spirits "have
no beginning; they existed before, they shall have no end, they shall exist
after, for they are gnolaum, or eternal" (v18).
WHAT HAS ABRAHAM BEEN TOLD ABOUT THE NATURE OF OUR SPIRITS?
The Prophet taught in the King Follett discourse: "I
am dwelling on the immortality of the spirit of man. Is it logical to say
that the intelligence of spirits is immortal, and yet that it had a beginning?
The intelligence of spirits had not beginning, neither will it have an
end. That is good logic. That which has a beginning may have an end. There
never was a time when there were not spirits; for they are co-equal [co-eternal]
with our Father in heaven." (TPJS, p353)
Elder Bruce R. McConkie: "'There is no such
thing as immaterial matter,' the Prophet tells us. 'All spirit is matter,
but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes; We
cannot see it; but when our bodies are purified we shall see that it is
all matter.' (D. & C. 131:7-8.) This spirit element has always existed;
it is co-eternal with God. (Teachings, pp. 352-354.) It is also called
intelligence or the light of truth, which 'was not created or made, neither
indeed can be.' (D. & C. 93:29.)
"Speaking of pre-existent
spirits, Abraham calls them 'the intelligences that were organized before
the world was.' (Abra. 3:22-24.) Thus, portions of the self-existent spirit
element are born as spirit children, or in other words the intelligence
which cannot be created or made, because it is self-existent, is organized
into intelligences." (Mormon Doctrine, p71)
WHAT IS ABRAHAM SHOWN IN THIS VISION?
He is shown a glimpse of life in our pre-existent, heavenly state.
Elder Bruce R. McConkie: "There were many meetings, conferences,
councils and schooling sessions held among the Gods and their spirit offspring
in pre-existence. Among other things, at these various assemblages, plans
were made for the creation and peopling of this earth and for the redemption
and salvation of the offspring of Deity." (Mormon Doctrine,
WHO WAS PRESENT IN THIS PRE-EXISTENCE?
Heavenly Father and his spirit children.
WHO ARE "THE NOBLE AND GREAT ONES" DESCRIBED IN THESE VERSES?
The prophets and church leaders from throughout the ages.
In his great vision, Joseph F. Smith identified some of those who were
among the noble and great ones, "The Prophet
Joseph Smith, and my father, Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, John Taylor, Wilford
Woodruff, and other choice spirits who were reserved to come forth in the
fulness of times to take part in laying the foundations of the great latter-day
work.... I observed that they were also among the noble and great
ones who were chosen in the beginning to be rulers in the Church of God."
(D&C 138:53, 55)
Abraham was told that these "noble and great ones" would be made
rulers (v23). The Lord informed Abraham that he had also been "chosen"
before he was born.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN THAT ABRAHAM WAS "CHOSEN" BEFORE HE WAS BORN?
He was foreordained to be a prophet and a father to a righteous people.
WHAT IS FOREORDINATION?
Elder Bruce R. McConkie: "To carry forward his own
purposes among men and nations, the Lord foreordained chosen spirit children in
pre-existence and assigned them to come to earth at particular times and places
so that they might aid in furthering the divine will. These pre-existence
appointments made 'according to the foreknowledge of God the Father' (1 Pet.
1:2), simply designated certain individuals to perform missions which the Lord
in his wisdom knew they had the talents and capacities to do. The mightiest and
greatest spirits were foreordained to stand as prophets and spiritual leaders." (Mormon Doctrine,
Joseph Smith: "Every man who has a calling
to minister to the inhabitants of the world was ordained to that very purpose
in the Grand Council of heaven before this world was. I suppose that I
was ordained to this very office in that Grand Council." (TPJS,
DID FOREORDINATION GUARANTEE THAT ABRAHAM, JOSEPH SMITH, AND OTHERS WOULD
BECOME PROPHETS? WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREORDINATION
Even though a person is foreordained to a calling, that calling is dependent
on the person's worthiness and willingness to accept it.
Consider the teachings of Alma to the wicked people in Ammonihah: "And
again, my brethren, I would cite your minds forward to the time when the
Lord God gave these commandments unto his children; and I would that ye
should remember that the Lord God ordained priests, after his holy order,
which was after the order of his Son, to teach these things unto the people.
"And those priests
were ordained after the order of his Son, in a manner that thereby the
people might know in what manner to look forward to his Son for redemption.
"And this is the
manner after which they were ordained--being called and prepared from
the foundation of the world according to the foreknowledge of God,
on account of their exceeding faith and good works; in the first place being
left to choose good or evil; therefore they having chosen good, and exercising
exceedingly great faith, are called with a holy calling, yea, with
that holy calling which was prepared with, and according to, a preparatory
redemption for such.
"And thus they have
been called to this holy calling on account of their faith, while others
would reject the Spirit of God on account of the hardness of their hearts
and blindness of their minds, while, if it had not been for this they might have had as great privilege as their brethren." (Alma
Elder Neal A. Maxwell: "Predestination,
once so powerful an influence on the human scene (and not without its residual
presence today), is overturned by the doctrines of premortal existence
and of foreordination. Instead of an arbitrary, unmerited 'chosen-ness,'
the merits of individuals meet the beckoning call of God." (Not
My Will, But Thine, p.39)
Resource Note 2.
As the Prophet stated, "Every man who has
a calling to minister to the inhabitants of the world was ordained to that
very purpose in the Grand Council of heaven before this world was."
DOES THAT INCLUDE US? WHAT MIGHT WE HAVE BEEN FOREORDAINED TO DO?
"Even before they were born, they, with many others,
received their first lessons in the world of spirits and were prepared
to come forth in the due time of the Lord to labor in his vineyard for
the salvation of the souls of men." (D&C
These might include:
A Primary teacher.
A Scout leader.
A home teacher or visiting teacher.
Service in any of these callings may impact the "salvation" of a soul or
It may be that
anytime we are in instrument in the Lord's hands in the work of salvation,
we are carrying out a foreordained calling.
President Ezra Taft Benson: "God has held
you in reserve to make your appearance in the final days before the second
coming of the Lord. Some individuals will fall away; but the kingdom of
God will remain intact to welcome the return of its head - even Jesus Christ.
While our generation will be comparable in wickedness to the days of Noah,
when the Lord cleansed the earth by flood, there is a major difference
this time. It is that God has saved for the final inning some of His strongest
children, who will help bear off the kingdom triumphantly. That is where
you come in, for you are the generation that must be prepared to meet your
"Make no mistake
about it-you are a marked generation. There has never been more expected
of the faithful in such a short period of time than there is of us."
(Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, pp104-105)
HOW CAN WE BE SURE WE ARE FULFILLING OR PREPARED TO FULFILL OUR FOREORDAINED
Keep the commandments.
Strive to live a divinely centered life by staying in tune with the will
of God through scripture study, pondering, communication with the Father
through prayer, and service.
Study our patriarchal blessings.
One of my greatest personal concerns is that I have not lived my life in
sufficient righteousness to be worthy to fulfill my foreordained callings. I hope we are not like those who Alma mentioned when he said, "others
would reject the Spirit of God on account of the hardness of their hearts
and blindness of their minds, while, if it had not been for this they might
have had as great privilege as their brethren." (Alma 13:4)
Jesus Christ Was Chosen in the Council in Heaven
WHAT IS BEING DESCRIBED IN THESE VERSES?
The great Council in Heaven.
Elder James E. Talmage explains what was at stake in this great Council: "We have heretofore
shown that the entire human race existed as spirit-beings in the primeval
world, and that for the purpose of making possible to them the experiences
of mortality this earth was created. They were endowed with the powers
of agency or choice while yet but spirits; and the divine plan provided
that they be free-born in the flesh, heirs to the inalienable birthright
of liberty to choose and to act for themselves in mortality. It is undeniably
essential to the eternal progression of God's children that they be subjected
to the influences of both good and evil, that they be tried and tested
and proved withal, 'to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord
their God shall command them .' Free agency is an indispensable element
of such a test." (Jesus the Christ, p17)
HOW DID THE OFFERS OF JESUS CHRIST AND LUCIFER DIFFER?
Jesus: "...we will prove them herewith,
to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command
them" (Abraham 3:25).
Lucifer: "...I will redeem all mankind,
that one soul shall not be lost, and surely I will do it" (Moses
4:1). He "sought to destroy the agency
of man" (Moses 4:3).
WHY IS THIS AGENCY SO IMPORTANT?
To answer this question, one must first understand our Heavenly Father
and our potential eternal destiny. We can only become like him as
we work our way through the experiences of our existence.
How successful are we when force is used? Satan was offering counterfeit salvation.
Like counterfeit money, it might look good on the surface, but it had no lasting
"And it must needs be that the devil should tempt
the children of men, or they could not be agents unto themselves; for if
they never should have bitter they could not know the sweet."
Elder Bruce R. McConkie: "Lucifer, in the
Grand Council when the Great God presented the plan of agency and salvation,
proposed instead to save all men. 'I will redeem all mankind, that one
soul shall not be lost and surely I will do it,' he said. (Moses 4:1.)
That is, none would be damned; damnation would not be a viable alternative
to salvation; there would be no agency -- no freedom of choice, no election
to serve God or to flee from evil and turn to righteousness. But if there
is no freedom of choice between damnation and salvation, how can either
exist? They are opposites; without one you cannot have the other. Lucifer's
proposal to amend the Father's plan could not be; it was philosophically
impossible to accomplish. He could not save all mankind, because unless
some were damned, there would be no salvation, for nothing can so much
as exist unless it has an opposite. Agency and freedom of worship are just
that basic and important in the eternal plan of salvation."
(A New Witness for the Articles of Faith, pp655-656)
Elder Neal A. Maxwell: "If the Lord were
to show His power as some expect power to be used-which is virtually unthinkable-mortals
would experience, among other things, prompt punishment rather than divine
long-suffering. God would then stop all human suffering and silence all
opposition to His work. In countless ways He would control the adverse
effects of agency merely to prove that He was all-powerful. But He would
not be all-loving for in effect He would have derailed His plan of happiness!
The enforced cooperation would not produce illuminated individuality but
an indistinguishable 'compound in one' (2 Nephi 2:11). We would then be
back to that proposal of enforced 'salvation' rejected so long ago (Moses
4:1)." (Not My Will, But Thine, p91)
The will of The Father.
Jesus: "Father, thy will be done"
Lucifer: "Satan rebelled against me"
Who receives the glory?
Jesus: "Father, thy will be done, and the glory be thine forever"
Lucifer: "...wherefore give me thine honor" (Moses
DO YOU THINK THE FATHER WAS CONCERNED WITH WHO RECEIVED THE GLORY?
This was not a battle of egos, except in the case of Satan.
Webster's College Dictionary gives one of the definitions of glory
as "a state of absolute happiness." The Father's glory or
happiness comes as we follow the plan of happiness. Happiness cannot
be forced upon us. We must follow the path. We must make the
- Resource Note 3.
We Chose To Follow Jesus Christ
WHOM DID WE CHOOSE TO FOLLOW IN THIS COUNCIL IN HEAVEN?
HOW DO WE KNOW WE CHOSE TO FOLLOW JESUS CHRIST?
The fact of our birth here on earth with physical bodies is evidence that
we chose the plan presented by Jesus Christ. The one-third of Heavenly
Father's children that followed Lucifer will not receive a physical body.
"And they who keep their first estate shall be
added upon; and they who keep not their first estate shall not have glory
in the same kingdom with those who keep their first estate; and they who
keep their second estate shall have glory added upon their heads for ever
and ever." (Abraham 3:26)
WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THE TERMS "FIRST ESTATE" AND "SECOND ESTATE"?
First estate: Our premortal life.
President George Q. Cannon: "It is true
that pre-existence is taught; but the pre-existence in which we believe
is confined to our first estate. We are taught that our present life is
our second estate, and this is a probation given unto us in which to gain
experience and to be tried and purified to prepare us for our next estate."
(Gospel Truth, p23)
HOW DID WE KEEP OUR FIRST ESTATE?
We chose to follow Jesus Christ.
WHAT WAS THE REWARD?
Second estate: Our mortal life.
HOW DO WE KEEP OUR SECOND ESTATE?
By following Jesus Christ. We do that by keeping his commandments
and seeking to do his will until the end of our days.
Elder Elray L. Christiansen: "God has created
us and has made possible this earth life. But here and now you and I are
in the process of molding the future, and in that sense we are our own
creators. My friends, what you are to be you are now becoming. What you
do here actually determines what you will be there. You, then, have had
a divinely-planned beginning. You may, if you will meet the conditions
prescribed by God, obtain a divinely-designed and glorious destiny."
(BYU Speeches of the Year - 1964, p7)
Sister Elaine Cannon: "This grand adventure
of choosing well is at every stage worth the battle. We are here to learn
what the Savior learned. God is the author of the format, and he is the
master teacher. He will not deny us our right to learn for ourselves those
lessons that will prove us herewith, that will mark our development. This
development includes how we deal with what happens to us, how we feel about
life and God, and how much we learn that is of value to us now and in the
"Life is a very special
kind of schooling. It is a training ground for our next estate. When we
become converted to - not just convinced of that truth and idea, our trials
and tribulations will be more meaningful to us."
WHAT IS THE REWARD?
We "shall have glory added upon" our
"heads for ever and ever"
What is that glory? The glory of the Father. Eternal happiness
which comes as we follow in the footsteps of the Father.
Elder Sterling W. Sill: "From the beginning
we have lived under the promise that if we passed the test of faithfulness
during our years of mortality, we would graduate into a glorious, everlasting
third estate. The third act is where the happy endings are; that is where
the rewards are handed out. The third act is where, like the Redeemer himself,
we may qualify for a glorious bodily resurrection and have all of the possibilities
of eternal progression made available to us." (CR, Oct 1965)
Elder John A. Widtsoe: "Death must be viewed
as a portal to a new and a greater life, in which man, possessed of new
experiences and a material as well as a spirit body, may continue eternally
the exploration of the inexhaustible universe and gain never-ending education
and never-ending advancement. Under the law of progression, the imperishable
man may move onward more rapidly and fully than ever before. Every natural
power of man on earth will be retained, improved and perfected, with others
added. The power to accept or to reject, to gain knowledge and to use it
wisely, will be keener than before. This is the Third Estate and the last
estate of man. It is an eternal life of action, increase and progress."
(quoted in Doctrines For Exaltation, pp215-216)
Lucifer/Satan and his followers were cast out of Heaven.
WHAT HAPPENED TO LUCIFER AND THOSE WHO CHOSE TO FOLLOW HIM?
"And there was war in
heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon
fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found
any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent,
called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast
out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him."
Lucifer and his followers were eternally damned: they were prohibited from
following the Father's plan of eternal happiness.
Cast from heaven.
Denied mortality and the physical body necessary for eternal progression
"The rebellious spirits followed Lucifer and with
him were cast down to the earth and became devils or evil spirits,
never to receive physical bodies on earth (Moses 4:1-4; D&C 76:25-27;
cf. Rev. 12:4, 7-9; D&C 29:36). Satan and his followers remain spirit
beings made in the image of God but are still rebellious and evil."
(Encyclopedia of Mormonism, p1404)
President Lorenzo Snow: "We come into this
world because we kept our first estate in the midst of all the trials and
difficulties in the other life. It was not all of the family of God that
preserved themselves in their first estate. One-third part of the host
of the children of God, His offspring, traveled in a different direction,
and were not worthy to come into the world. They do come sometimes, but
they have to borrow bodies, not having any of their own." (Collected
Discourses, vol 4)
WHAT ARE SATAN AND HIS FOLLOWERS DOING NOW?
Lucifer, Son of the Morning, "...became Satan,
yea, even the devil, the father of all lies, to deceive and to blind men,
and to lead them captive at his will, even as many as would not hearken
unto my voice." (Moses 4:4)
Elder Joseph F. Merrill: "Let us not forget
that Satan, a spirit brother of ours, is here on earth with a myriad of
other spirit brothers. They are among us for a purpose—they are doing all
in their power to destroy us and handicap the work of the Lord. Satan knows
us our desires, our weaknesses, our secrets. He tempts us in a multitude
of ways. He attacks us where we are weak, not where we are strong. He stirs
us up to doubt, to question, to criticize, to hate, to be slothful, discouraged,
sinful, and wicked. He is at the bottom of dissension among the Saints.
He is ever near at hand to make attempts to overcome and lead us away.
I have in mind not only us in this meeting but people generally. Undoubtedly
Satan's influence and power in the world today is greater than ever before."
(CR, Apr 1945)
President Ezra Taft Benson: "There is a
conspiracy of evil. The source of it all is Satan and his hosts. He has
a great power over men to 'lead them captive at his will, even as many
as would not hearken' to the voice of the Lord (Moses 4:4). His evil influence
may be manifest through governments; through false educational, political,
economic, religious, and social philosophies; through secret societies
and organizations; and through myriads of other forms. His power and influence
are so great that, if possible, he would deceive the very elect (see Matthew
24:24). As the second coming of the Lord approaches, Satan's work will
intensify through numerous insidious deceptions." (CR April
Resource Note 4.
WHAT ARE SOME SPECIFIC WAYS THAT SATAN TRIES TO LIMIT OR DESTROY OUR AGENCY?
To name a few:
- Harmful substances.
- Brainwashing by the media: books, movies, television, music, Internet, video
- Legal controls.
WHAT CAN WE DO TO RECOGNIZE AND RESIST SATAN'S EFFORTS TO DESTROY OUR AGENCY?
Live by the Spirit - as we do so, we will be able to detect these attempts.
If we live unrighteously, we lose the Spirit, and surrender our agency
to other forces.
HOW CAN PARENTS TEACH AND TRAIN THEIR CHILDREN WHILE PRESERVING CHILDREN'S
As the Prophet Joseph Smith stated: "I teach
them correct principles and let them govern themselves." (quoted by John Taylor in Millennial Star 13:339)
This is a process. Little children must have some restriction on
their agency, but as they grow and learn we must become like Heavenly Father
and allow them to exercise that agency. It is our responsibility to teach
The family life of President and Sister Hinckley sets a wonderful example:
"Neither Gordon nor Marjorie was inclined to impose
on the children a lengthy list of rigid rules and regulations. He insisted
that he did enough preaching elsewhere—he had no desire to come home and
do more. Discipline was handled much the same way. They both believed that
harsh corrective measures only created resentment. 'Mother and Dad taught
us that there was a difference between principles and rules,' Ginny explained.
'There are never enough rules to tell you what to do in every situation.
But they did put a few principles in place. We felt free to make decisions
because we knew the fundamental principles against which everything could
be measured'." (Go Forward With Faith, p168)
"One Sunday morning as the family was getting
ready for church, Ginny complained to her mother, 'Do I have to go to church
today?' Without hesitating, Marjorie responded calmly, 'No, you don't have
to go if you don't want to.' After a pause, she added, as though it were
simply a logical arrangement: 'But if you're going to stay home, would
you get dinner on for us? It would be wonderful to come home from church
and have dinner ready.' Ginny agreed, and Marjorie left worrying that she
should have handled the situation differently. The family returned home
to find the meal prepared and Ginny waiting for everyone on the front lawn.
'Virginia never stayed home again,' Marjorie said. 'She found it was better
to just go with the family than to stay behind alone. In that situation,
it helped to not make a federal case out of the issue'." (Go
Forward With Faith, p174)
"One of the best ways to protect your home from
evil influences is to gather together as a family and pray a prayer of
dedication. These prayers should establish the family dwelling as the following:
" - A place of worship.
" - A safe harbor from the world.
" - A healthy environment in which to grow spiritually.
" - An atmosphere of encouragement and love where
family relationships can grow ever closer.
"Once the family has dedicated its home, each
member has a responsibility to uphold this dedication. Fathers and mothers
must monitor the content and time spent in non-spiritual entertainment.
In these days where cable television with no censorship is prevalent in
the common household, parents have a sacred duty to protect their offspring
from obscenity, pornography and all unwholesome material, be it visual
or oral. Likewise, young people must exercise wisdom and discernment in
what they see and hear." (LDS Church News, 06/03/95)
How to Checklist:
Heed the counsel of prophets on avoiding evil influences.
Live the gospel; pray, study the scriptures as a family.
Foster loving, peaceful atmosphere; avoid contention.
Allow only uplifting music, other media into your home.
(LDS Church News, 06/03/95)
- Resource Note 5.
Gospel Doctrine Notebook
Record your thoughts about the doctrine of foreordination. How
does an understanding of the great eternal plan, as laid out in the our
pre-earthly life, affect your life today? How will you apply this knowledge in
Resources Used In This Lesson
A New Witness for the Articles of Faith by Bruce R. McConkie.
Adversity by Elaine Cannon.
BYU Speeches of the Year.
Collected Discourses, Volume 4.
Conference Reports (CR).
Doctrines For Exaltation: The 1989 Sperry Symposium on the Doctrine and
Covenants, edited by Susan Easton Black.
Encyclopedia of Mormonism edited by Daniel H. Ludlow.
Go Forward With Faith: The Biography of Gordon B. Hinckley by Sheri L.
Gospel Truth: Discourses and Writings of George Q. Cannon.
History of the Church (HC).
Jesus the Christ by James E. Talmage.
LDS Church News.
Mormon Doctrine by Bruce R. McConkie.
Not My Will, But Thine by Neal A. Maxwell.
Studies In Scripture, Volume 2: The Pearl of Great Price edited by Robert L.
Millet and Kent P. Jackson.
Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson.
Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding
Gospel Doctrine Class
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